Source: Urban Institute analysis of 1980, 1990, and 2000 Census data and 2007-11 American Community Survey (ACS) data (approximated above by "2010*"). 1980 through 2000 Census data is summarized at the 2000 tract-level from the Neighborhood Change Database. 2007-11 ACS data is summarized at the 2010 tract-level from the Census. Race is defined as White Alone, Black/African American Alone, Asian, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islander alone, and Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race). All MSAs are standardized to 2008 OMB CBSA definitions.